Textures

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Textures

Textures

The Textures command opens the Textures panel that creates textures that can be dragged and dropped onto Materials and Environments controls.

Note

Textures panel

Panel options

Textures panel toolbar

The Textures panel has additional browsing tools.

Back

Selects the previous item in the list.

Forward

Selects the next item in the list.

Current item

Displays the current item icon and name.

Search
Search Names

Limits the search to names.

Search Notes

Limits the search to notes.

Search Tags

Limits the search to tags.

Show Search Tips

Displays how 'name:', 'note:', 'tag:', '?', '#' and '^' are used for searching items.

Menu

Displays the Tools menu.

Help

Preview thumbnail actions

Drag and drop actions in the list section

Creating and editing textures

To create a new texture

  1. In the thumbnail browser, click the Create New Texture button .
  2. On the menu, select a texture type.
  3. Sub-panels containing the settings for that texture type appear in the Textures panel.
Import Texture from File

Imports materials from a saved Rhino .rtex file.

Type

Specifies the texture type.

Types

2D Checker

3D Checker

Bitmap

Blend

Crosshatch Bump

Cube Map

Dots

Exposure

fBm

Gradient

Granite

Grid

Grit Bump

Hatch Bump

High Dynamic Range

Leather Grain Bump

Marble

Mask

Noise

Perlin Marble

Perturbing

Physical Sky

Projection Changer

Resample

Simple Bitmap

Simple Dot Bump

Single Color

Speckle Bump

Stucco

Texture Adjustment

Tile

Turbulence

Waves

Wood

More types...

Opens the content type browser to see more options for creating a new texture.

Texture settings

Each texture type has its own set of settings appropriate for the type.

In addition to the settings specific to the texture type, the following settings sub-panels appear when appropriate.

Name

The name of the texture.

Colors

This setting displays whenever colors can be specified for the texture components.

Color 1 / 2

The color for each component of the material can be set to a different color or texture.

To change the color

Context menu options

Color Picker

Opens the Select Color dialog box.

Eye Dropper

Allows picking the color from anywhere on the screen.

Copy

Copies the color in the color swatch.

Paste

Pastes the color from one color swatch to another.

Assign texture

Assign a texture to the color control.

Edit texture

Opens the texture editor.

Remove texture

Removes the texture from the control.

(click to assign texture)

Assign an image or a procedural texture to use as the color.

To specify an image

  1. Click in the (click to assign texture) control.
    The check box automatically becomes checked the first time you do this. You can clear the check box to turn off the assignment.
  2. Select an image file or click Choose from more texture types and select a procedural texture type.

  3. In the edit box, specify the percentage of strength the image will use to affect the color, transparency, bump, or environment.

Browse

Context menu options

Edit

Opens the Bitmap Texture Settings panel.

Copy

Copies the image to the clipboard.

Paste

Pastes the image in the clipboard into the texture slot.

Paste as Instance

Pastes the image in the clipboard as an instance. Changes to the parent image also change the instances.

Floating Preview

Opens a floating thumbnail preview of the texture.

Change

Select a different image or texture type.

Remove

Removes the texture from the slot.

Remove Instancing

Removes the instancing, breaking the connection to the original parent image.

Properties

Opens the Properties dialog box for setting the output channel.

Properties

Output Channel
Custom
Default
Swap colors

Exchanges colors 1 and 2 for each other.

Super sample

Tries to reduce aliasing in the texture.

See: Wikipedia, Supersampling.

You can drag the color swatch to a folder to create a Rhino color file.

To add this color to a color library

Mapping for 3-D textures

Determines how colors at the original uv(w) coordinates of the texture are translated to the uv location on an object. The Rhino default is to use the uv coordinates given by the geometry itself: either the parameters of the surface or the original texture coordinates of the mesh. These controls allow modification of the way the texture appears to wrap itself around objects.

Offset U/V/W

Shifts the texture along the u and/or v direction in texture space.

Repeat U/V/W

Causes the texture to recur in texture space.

Rotation U/V/W

Rotates the texture in texture space by a specific number of degrees.

WCS

UV coordinates are generated from the actual position in world space of the object. This is useful for real-world size materials - especially 3‑D procedural textures.

Box style

UV coordinates are generated from a coordinate system specified by the world space location on the object and the side of an imaginary box pointed to by the object’s normal at that location. This is useful for real-world style materials, particularly 2‑D types like bitmaps, since the sides of objects will also be projected in a meaningful manner.

Mapping Channel

Uses the texture coordinates of that object on a specific mapping channel. By default, with a single mapping channel in use on an object, the texture coordinates will be generated from values found in Object Properties > Texture Mapping.

Preview in 3D

Uses a 3-D object in the thumbnail and preview window to display the mapping on an object. See: Textures panel thumbnail context menu.

Preview local mapping

If this checkbox is on, texture previews will be modified by the mapping parameters. This can make it difficult to see the texture itself, if there is a high repeat, for example.

Display in Viewport

Displays the results of mapping a texture when that texture is not well displayed in the viewport. The texture is displayed temporarily as if it were the object color. This can be useful with advanced rendering engines where the viewport display does not support a particular rendering feature that can be textured (for example, reflectivity).

Mapping for 2-D textures

Determines how colors at the original uv(w) coordinates of the texture are translated to the uv location on an object. The Rhino default is to use the uv coordinates given by the geometry itself: either the parameters of the surface or the original texture coordinates of the mesh. These controls allow modification of the way the texture appears to wrap itself around objects.

Offset U/V

Shifts the texture along the u and/or v direction in texture space.

Repeat U/V

Causes the texture to recur in texture space.

Rotation

Rotates the texture in texture space by a specific number of degrees.

No repeat

Only one instance of the texture will be seen on the object.

Environment map

Projects the image using similar mapping to the EMap command, while allowing for other input projections to be used.

Automatic

Uses information from the texture itself to determine the projection type. This may be actually specified in the texture. For example, HDR and Projection Changer textures specify their output projection.

EMap

Elliptical subsection reaching each border of the texture is mapped onto the sphere. This projection is the result of taking a photo of a mirror sphere with an orthographic camera.

Box

Maps the entire texture onto all sides of the cube.

Lightprobe

Also known as angular fish-eye projection or azimuthal equidistant projection. Elliptical subsection reaching each border of the texture is mapped onto the sphere.

See: Wikipedia: Azimuthal equidistant projection.

Spherical

Also known as equirectangular projection. Horizontal line in the middle of the texture is mapped to the equator of the sphere.

See: Wikipedia: Equirectangular projection.

Cubemap

Subsections corresponding to each side of the cube are located side by side dividing the texture into six equal parts.

See: Wikipedia: Cube mapping.

Vertical cross cubemap

Subsections corresponding to each side of the cube are located in a vertical cross pattern. Each subsection is one fourth of the image in height and one third in width.

Horizontal cross cubemap

Subsections corresponding to each side of the cube are located in a horizontal cross pattern. Each subsection is one third of the image in height and one fourth in width.

Screen

Uses the flat 2‑D screen coordinates of the object (where 0,0 is the top left corner and 1,1 is the bottom right) to determine the texture uv. This is often used in conjunction with a background image to cause the colors on an object to match the background.

WCS

UV coordinates are generated from the actual position in world space of the object. This is useful for real-world size materials - especially 3‑D procedural textures.

WCS (box style)

UV coordinates are generated from a coordinate system specified by the world space location on the object and the side of an imaginary box pointed to by the object’s normal at that location. This is useful for real-world style materials, particularly 2‑D types like bitmaps, since the sides of objects will also be projected in a meaningful manner.

Mapping Channel

Uses the texture coordinates of that object on a specific mapping channel. By default, with a single mapping channel in use on an object, the texture coordinates will be generated from values found in Object Properties > Texture Mapping.

Preview local mapping

Texture previews will be modified by the mapping parameters. This can make it difficult to see the texture itself, if there is a high repeat, for example.

Display in Viewport

Displays the results of mapping a texture when that texture is not well displayed in the viewport. The texture is displayed temporarily as if it were the object color. This can be useful with advanced rendering engines where the viewport display does not support a particular rendering feature that can be textured (for example, reflectivity).

Graph

The graph control displays the color values at particular sections from the uv space of the texture. This can be useful when the color values are used to calculate parameters in non-color slots, such as bump, transparency.

Red

Shows the value of the red component of the texture.

Green

Shows the value of the green component of the texture.

Blue

Shows the value of the blue component of the texture.

Alpha

Shows the value of the alpha component of the texture.

Luminance

Shows the combined luminance of the texture (calculated using the CIE standard method from the red, green and blue channels). This calculates non-color values such as transparency and bump.

U

Shows a section through the specified u parameter of the texture.

V

Shows a section through the specified v parameter of the texture.

W

Shows a section through the specified w parameter of the texture.

Output Adjustment

Allows the modification of the texture output with some common transformations.

Clamping

Given a specific output color component (R, G, B), the clamp controls allow scaling and to zero the values above or below specified thresholds.

Clamp

Turns component clamping on or off.

Scale to clamp range

Scales the component values between the minimum and maximum values.

Min

Sets the minimum value.

Max

Sets the maximum value.

Color adjustment

Invert

Transforms the image to its negative. For low dynamic range (LDR) images, this involves subtracting each component from 1.0. For HDR images, each component is replaced with its reciprocal.

Grayscale

Each color is replaced with a gray value based on the luminance.

Gamma

Each color transforms by a given gamma. The effect is increased or decreased contrast.

Multiplier

Each color value is multiplied by a this amount. The effect is to increase or decrease brightness.

Gain

A simple adjustment to increase and decrease contrast and brightness.

Saturation

Changes the image saturation where 1.0 is the original color saturation and 0.0 is fully gray.

Hue shift

Changes the hue value of each color by a given degree on the color wheel.

2D Checker Texture

The 2D Checker texture is a planar texture that does provides a checker pattern in only two directions.

Checker Texture Settings

Remap textures to tile size

Causes child textures to be re-sized to fit into an individual checker.

3D Checker Texture

The 3D Checker texture is a 3-D pattern. Sub textures can be set to each of the colors of the texture, and their u, v, and w can be re-mapped to the scale of the checker pattern.

Checker Texture Settings

Remap textures to tile size

Causes child textures to be re-sized to fit into an individual checker.

Bitmap Texture

The Bitmap texture contains a simple bitmap image. You can also specify a transparent color to be used as an alpha channel in the case that no alpha channel is specified in the image.

Bitmap Texture Settings

Image preview and properties

Preview image

Size in pixels

Color depth

Image size

File size

Mirror alternate tiles

Mirrors every other tile to allow easier edge matching on non-repeatable bitmaps.

Enable filtering

When multiple points on the surface are mapped to the same point in the texture the image can be "pixelated," displaying jagged lines and stair-stepped transitions between colors in the texture. Filtering smooths those transitions. In most cases the pixelation is smoothed out but if a very small texture is mapped to a very large surface the filtering tends to make things look blurry.

Enable filtering off (left) and on (right).

Filename

The path and name of the bitmap file.

Browse for file

Open file browser.

Open image in associated editor

Opens the image in your assigned image editor (Paint, PaintShop, or similar).

Color mask
(Color selector)

Specifies the color.

To change the color

Menu options  

Color Picker

Opens the Select Color dialog box.

Eye Dropper

Allows picking the color from anywhere on the screen.

Copy

Copies the color in the color swatch.

Paste

Pastes the color from one color swatch to another.

Tolerance %

The tolerance to be used to determine if the texture's color matches the transparency color.

Use alpha channel

Use the alpha channel stored in the image file.

Blend Texture

The Blend texture is a simple color blending between two textures.

Blend Texture Settings

Factor

Blends Colors 1 and 2 using an amount of blend.

Texture

Blends Colors 1 and 2 using the luminance values of a texture.

Crosshatch Bump

Cube Map Texture

The Cube Map texture takes six individual images arranged as separate cube map face images, and produces a linear cube map texture. This texture can then be converted into any other projection using the projection changer texture.

See: Wikipedia: Cube Mapping

Cube Map Settings

Positive / Negative X / Y / Z

The texture to use at each face of the cube.

Turn the image on

These buttons are always disabled. The image is always on.

Texture slot

The child texture to use.

Percentage

These buttons are always disabled. The image always uses 100%.

Dots Texture

The Dots texture generates a random dot pattern. Sub-textures can be set for the dot color and the background color.

Default settings (left), customized settings (center), used a bump map (right).

Sampler

Specifies the algorithm used to distribute the dots in space.

Sampler type
Best candidate

A low discrepancy sampler to generate dots that are randomly placed but uniformly distributed.

Stratified

A perturbed grid pattern that is more memory efficient but tends to be less well distributed.

#of dots

The approximate number of dots in the pattern.

Pattern size

Determines how far apart dots are generated. It operates like zooming in and out, but as you zoom in, more dots appear to keep the number of dots as close as possible to the #of dots value.

Dot Style

The Dot Style settings specify the way the dot merges into its background. These settings work well with bump mapping.

Fall off type

The fall-off type describes the shape of the dot when used as a bump map.

Flat

Generates flat dots that appear as simple discs.

Linear

Uses a linear method so that when used as a bump map, the bumps are conical with a very sharp center point.

Cubic

Similar to Linear but uses a different method so that when used as a bump map, the bumps are more smooth and rounded.

Elliptic

Similar to Cubic but uses a different method so that when used as a bump map, the bumps have a domed appearance.

Arc

Radius

Specifies the radius of the dots.

Variance

Specifies a level of randomization for the radius.

Rings

Makes the dot into a ring with a variable size hole.

Hole

Specifies the size of the hole as a percentage of the radius.

Variance

Specifies the size of the hole as a percentage of the radius.

Dot Appearance

The Dot Appearance settings specify how the dot interacts with the background.

Composition type

Specifies how the two dot colors are composited.

Standard

The dot blending functions are added together and the resulting value is used to interpolate between the background and foreground colors.

Maximum

The maximum value for each color channel (R, G, B and A) is used.

Addition

Color channels are added.

Subtraction

Color channels are subtracted.

Multiplication

Color channels are multiplied.

Average

Color channels are averaged.

Amplitude

This is the amount of the dot effect. When used as a color, it affects the brightness of the dot. When used as a bump map, it affects the depth of the bumps.

Variance

Specifies a level of randomization for the amplitude.

Hue

Normally the dots are colored according to the value of Color 2. This setting allows the color hue to randomly vary.

Variance

Specifies a level of randomization for the hue. This has no effect when the composition type is Standard.

Saturation

Normally the dots are colored according to the value of Color 2. This setting allows the color saturation to randomly vary.

Variance

Specifies a level of randomization for the saturation. This has no effect when the composition type is Standard.

Exposure Texture

The Exposure texture takes high-dynamic-range information and converts it to a low-dynamic-range image using the same exposure algorithms used in the high-dynamic-range texture.

Exposure Texture Settings

Input

Add the high-dynamic range (HDR) texture whose exposure you want to control.

Exposure

Changes the exposure of the HDR texture. It decides the part of the HDR dynamic range is mapped to the pixel range (0 to 255).

Multiplier

A scale factor that multiplies the final pixel color before it is displayed. The pixel color is then clamped to the range 0 to 255.

fBm Texture

The fractal Brownian motion (fBm) texture is a standard computer graphics noise type where the noise is superimposed upon itself at different scales and amplitudes. So the closer you look, the more detailed the pattern is. A basic continuous noise function for bump maps based on Perlin noise. fBm is a variation on Perlin noise with either Fractal Sum synthesis. Textures can be set to the two colors in the noise function.

Similar effects are possible using the more complex but much more powerful Noise texture.

See: Wikipedia: Perlin noise.

fBm Texture settings

Roughness

The amplitude change between octaves.

Maximum octaves

The maximum number of super-impositions. This relates to the amount of detail in the noise.

Gain

A standard way of modifying the output of textures from linear to exponential.

Gradient Texture

The Gradient texture provides predefined gradient types along with custom curve support. Textures can be set to the two colors of the gradient.

Gradient Texture Settings

Gradient type

Specifies the way the colors combine.


Linear


Box


Radial


Tartan


Sweep


Pong


Spiral

 

 

Flip alternate gradients
Custom curve

Opens the Custom Curve panel.

Custom Curve

Graph

Drag points on the graph to reset the curves.

Add

Adds edit points with handles to a curve.

Delete

Deletes edit points from a curve.

Select All

Selects all active curves.

Channel Buttons

Red

Green

Blue

Alpha

Reset Display

Resets the thumbnail.

Reset Graph

Resets the graph to the default settings.

Enlarge

Opens the panel as a free-standing control.

Granite Texture

The Granite texture is a spotted 3-D texture. The granite procedure combines a randomly distributed spot component in a base component.

Granite Texture Settings

Size

The overall size of the texture.

Spot size

The size of the spots.

Blending

The amount of blending between the base color and the spot color.

Grid Texture

The Grid texture uses a numbered grid bitmap as the texture.

Grid Texture Settings

Cells

The number of squares.

Font thickness

The size of the font used to number the grid squares.

Grit Bump Texture

 

Hatch Bump Texture

 

High Dynamic Range

A High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) texture provides automatic conversion to a bitmap for non-HDR capable renderers. This allows the Rhino renderer and viewport display to show HDR environments. The HDR texture also provides projection conversion features. Most HDRi files come as light probe projection.

See: www.easyhdr.com/examples.

High-Dynamic Range Texture Settings

Preview

Image and file properties.

Filename

The path and name of the HDR.

Original projection
Planar

Maps texture directly to background. Environment looks always the same no matter where the camera is looking.

Light probe

Also known as angular fish-eye projection or azimuthal equidistant projection. Elliptical subsection reaching each border of the texture is mapped onto the sphere.

See: Wikipedia: Azimuthal equidistant projection.

Equirectangular

Also known as spherical projection. Horizontal line in the middle of the texture is mapped to the equator of the sphere.

See: Wikipedia: Equirectangular projection.

Cubemap

Subsections corresponding to each side of the cube are located side by side dividing the texture into six equal parts.

See: Wikipedia: Cube mapping.

Vertical cross cubemap

Subsections corresponding to each side of the cube are located in a vertical cross pattern. Each subsection is one fourth of the image in height and one third in width.

Horizontal cross cubemap

Subsections corresponding to each side of the cube are located in a horizontal cross pattern. Each subsection is one third of the image in height and one fourth in width.

Emap

Elliptical subsection reaching each border of the texture is mapped onto the sphere. This projection is the result of taking a photo of a mirror sphere with an orthographic camera.

Hemispherical

Like spherical projection but the entire texture is mapped onto the upper half of the sphere. The bottom border of the texture is stretched over the under side of the sphere.

Output projection
Same as input

Use the same projection as the input image.

Azimuth / Altitude

Modify the way the image is rotated in space during the projection conversion.

HDR multiplier

A simple linear multiplier on all values in the image. This can be used to brighten or dim the image in an HDR capable renderer.

Save As

Converts the image to a bitmap file.

Leather Grain Bump Texture

 

Marble Texture

Creates alternating slabs of base and vein components.

Marble Texture Settings

Size

The overall size of the texture

Vein width

The fraction of the distance from one base stripe to the next. Values range from 0 for no Vein component to 1 for no base component.

Blur

Blurs the edges of the veins.

Noise

Adds noise to the texture.

Mask Texture

The Mask texture creates a grayscale image from a specific component of an input texture. This is useful for creating textures suitable for non-color uses (like transparency, or bump). It is even more useful for calculating a mask from only a single component. It is most commonly used to extract the alpha channel from an input texture.

Mask Texture Settings

Source texture

The texture to be used as input.

Mask type

The texture component to be used as the output.

Luminance

Calculates the output texture from the grayscale of the input image.

Red

Calculates the output texture from the grayscale color made by using the red component for all components (R, R, R, 1.0).

Green

Calculates the output texture from the grayscale color made by using the green component for all components (G, G, G, 1.0).

Blue

Calculates the output texture from the grayscale color made by using the blue component for all components (B, B, B, 1.0).

Alpha

Calculates the output texture from the grayscale color made by using the alpha component for all components (A, A, A, 1.0).

Noise Texture

The noise texture is a general purpose procedural texture for creating many types of coherent or partially coherent multi-octave noise. The texture is very useful as a building block for other procedural types, but can also be used on its own for non-repeating bump patterns or random variations in color.

Noise Texture Settings

Noise Type

Type

Many different types of noise for use in computer graphics have been developed. The noise texture provides several of them.

Perlin

The classic noise developed by Ken Perlin in 1983.

See: Wikipedia: Perlin noise.

Value

Creates a lattice of points which are assigned random values.

See: Wikipedia: Value noise.

Perlin+Value

The result of Perlin noise and Value noise added together.

Simplex

A method for constructing an n-dimensional noise function comparable to Perlin noise but with a lower computational overhead.

See: Wikipedia: Simplex noise.

Sparse convolution

A noise method with accurate spectral control, easily mapped to a surface, and anisotropic filtering.

See: Procedural Noise using Sparse Gabor Convolution.

Lattice convolution

Similar to Value noise but with a different interpolation method.

Ward's Hermite

A Hermite noise published by Greg Ward.

Aaltonen

A coherent noise function developed by Robert McNeel & Associates.

Spectral Synthesis Type

Determines how the noise octaves are combined.

Fractal sum

Results in a smooth noise function where there are no discontinuities.

Turbulence

Results in a non-smooth function where there are sudden discontinuities in the noise function.

Settings

Octaves

Multi-layered noise is available by adding octaves. Noise octaves are additional noise waveforms layered onto the base wave at increasing frequencies and decreasing amplitude. Multi-layered noise can be used to simulate fractal-type effects such as ocean waves and landscape.

Frequency number

The frequency is multiplied by this number to reach the next octave.

Amplitude multiplier

Typically each octave is reduced in amplitude to create a fractal like pattern. This multiplier determines how much each octave is reduced by.

Clamping

Min/Max

Sets the minimum and maximum values.

Scale to clamp

Scales the component values between the minimum and maximum values.

Invert

Transforms the image to its negative. For low dynamic range (LDR) images, this involves subtracting each component from 1.0. For HDR images, each component is replaced with its reciprocal.

Gain

A simple adjustment to increase and decrease contrast and brightness.

Perlin Marble Texture

A simple Perlin marble texture implementation.

See: Wikipedia: Perlin noise.

Perlin Marble Texture Settings

Size

Sets the size of the marble pattern.

Color 1 Sat:

Sets the saturation level of Color 1.

Color 2 Sat:

Sets the saturation level of Color 2.

Levels

Sets the number of times the turbulence algorithm is applied. The higher the value, the more complicated the marble pattern.

Noise

Adds noise to the texture.

Blur

Blurs the edges of the veins.

Perturbing Texture

The perturbing texture takes a source texture, and a texture that controls the perturbation of the source; generally a Noise or fBm texture although anything will work.

Perturbing Texture Settings

Texture

The source texture.

Perturbing texture

The texture that controls the perturbation of the source.

Amount

Adjusts the strength of the perturbing texture.

Physical Sky Texture

Creates a texture based on the appearance of the sky based on date, time, and location settings.

Physical Sky Texture Settings

Use document sun

Uses the settings from the Sun panel.

Year

Specifies the date. As you move the slider or enter a date in the edit box, the texture dynamically updates to reflect the change. The slider bar colors indicate the relative brightness of the sun at the specified date.

Time

Specifies the time. As you move the slider or enter a time in the edit box, the texture dynamically updates to reflect the change. The slider bar colors indicate the relative brightness of the sun at the specified time.

Now

Sets the time and date from your computer’s clock.

Map

Specifies the location and the Time Zone on Earth which is typically set from the closest city to the selected location.

City list

Sets the location from a city list.

Here

Sets the time to the current system location.

Find place

Specifies a city in the city list.

Lat

Specifies the location's latitude.

Long

Specifies the location's longitude.

Time zone

Specifies the location's time zone.

Show sun

Shows the sun in the texture.


Sun off (left) and on (right).
Sun size

The size of the sun in the rendered image.


Sun large (left) and small (right).
Sun brightness

The brightness of the sun.

Sun coronal color

The color of the sun's corona (halo around the sun).

Atmospheric density

The denser the atmosphere, the larger the Sun will appear because the atmospheric density acts as a magnifier.

Light scattering

How much the light particles spread out and how fast. This is similar to the way refraction works through transparent materials. As the sun approaches the horizon, the light scatters more and at a faster rate the lower it gets because you are looking through a thicker slice of the atmosphere, which causes the light to scatter more. Higher values cause the sun to appear more red.

Particle scattering (haze)

Affects the results when the Sun is low on the horizon. Higher numbers cause thicker (smoggier) air. More particles “scatter” as the Sun approaches the horizon causing a greater effect (sunset, sun size, color distribution, etc...).

Light wavelengths

Attempts to model how wavelengths of light are diffused and refracted through our atmosphere. The settings represent the physical wavelengths of the primary colors. The default values are the physically correct values for our atmosphere (Earth). However, these values do not define the color of the sky, but rather how light interacts within the atmosphere due to its wavelengths using Rayleigh and Mie scattering models.

Exposure

Multiplies the overall intensity. Brighter areas will become more intense than darker areas.

Projection Changer Texture

The projection changer texture converts a texture or image from one type of projection to another. The options available are the same as for the HDR image and cover most forms of texture projection. This can be very useful for conversion of environment maps.

Projection Changer Texture Settings

Input
Original projection

See: Environment Editor, Projection.

Output projection

See: Environment Editor, Projection.

Same as input

Use the same projection type as the input image.

Azimuth/Altitude

Modify the way the image is rotated in space during the projection conversion.

Resample Texture

The Resample texture takes an input texture and divides it into pixels. The color of these pixels is determined by sampling the colors from the input texture. Fewer samples may result in noisy pixelation, especially on noisy input textures, but will be quicker.

It also has features for smooth interpolation between the pixel centers, and blurring controls. The re-sample texture is especially useful for creating blurred or pixelated versions of other textures, particularly procedural textures or HDR textures which cannot be easily blurred in an image editing package.

Resample Texture Settings

Texture

Texture name

The input texture. Click to assign a new texture.

Resampling

U divisions

The number of pixels in the re-sampled texture in the u‑direction.

V divisions

The number of pixels in the re-sampled texture in the v‑direction.

Min samples

The minimum number of samples taken from the original image used to determine the color of the re-sampled pixel.

Max samples

If the maximum is higher than the minimum, the input texture will be adaptively sampled up to the maximum number of samples.

Interpolate

The interpolate option causes the sample values taken from the grid to be linearly interpolated. For a grid of simple colors, clear this check box.

Texture colors will be generated using bi-linear interpolation between the colors at the nearest pixel centers. Causes the re-sampled texture to switch between pixelated and smooth.

Blur

Blurring causes the values of neighboring re-sampled pixels to be averaged with their near neighbors.

On

Turns blur on.

Type

The re-sample texture supports four averaging types, each with its own characteristics.

Box

Uses a simple and fast technique to sum and average neighboring pixels. This method can result in artifacts.

Triangle

A fast averaging technique that reduces the edge artifacts.

Gaussian

A true Gaussian blurring technique that uses a bell-curve weighting to produce most accurate and artifact-free blur. This method can result in “over blurring” and can be slow.

Mitchell-Netravali

A modification of the Gaussian curve that preserves details while keeping artifacts to a minimum. This method can be slow.

Radius

The radius determines how colors far from the original pixel contribute to the resulting pixel's color. A larger radius means more blurring. The radius is measured in texture units (1.0 means the entire width of the image). Values of around 0.1 - 0.2 work for significant blurred results.

Wrap U

Determines whether pixels at the left and right edges of the image can use color information from the opposite side of the image in the blurring results.

Wrap V

Determines whether pixels at the top and bottom edges of the image can use color information from the opposite side of the image in the blurring results.

Simple Bitmap Texture

Mirror alternate tiles

Mirrors every other tile to allow easier edge matching on non-repeatable bitmaps.

Enable filtering

When multiple points on the surface are mapped to the same point in the texture the image can be "pixelated," displaying jagged lines and stair-stepped transitions between colors in the texture. Filtering smooths those transitions. In most cases the pixelation is smoothed out but if a very small texture is mapped to a very large surface the filtering tends to make things look blurry.

Enable filtering off (left) and on (right).

Filename

The path and name of the bitmap file.

Browse for file

Open file browser.

Open image in associated editor

Opens the image in your assigned image editor (Paint, PaintShop, or similar).

Simple Dot Bump Texture

 

Single Color Texture

The Single Color texture acts as a placeholder for either a color or a sub-node texture. It can be useful in situations where you want to instance colors across many materials or textures.

Single Color Texture Settings

Color 1

Texture slot

Click to use a texture.

Super sample

Performs a basic randomized multi-sampling of the texture. This can help with moiré effects in sub-pixel ray sampling

Use object color

The texture uses the wire color of the object being rendered instead of its own color. This means you can have a single Basic Material with this texture in the Color slot and each object using that material will be colored according to its Display Color attribute.


Shaded view (left); Rendered view with texture and Use object color and
Noise texture (right).

Speckle Bump Texture

 

Stucco Texture

The Stucco texture generates a simple surface pattern useful for creating the effect of a stuccoed surface using bump mapping.

Stucco Texture Settings

Size

Controls the size of the bumps. Increasing this value appears to zoom in on the texture.

Thickness

Controls the thickness of the bumpy areas. Higher values create more detail in the bumps.

Threshold

Controls how pronounced the bumps are. Lower values make the texture more bumpy. Higher values smooth the texture out and show fewer bumps. A value of 1 makes the texture completely smooth.

Texture Adjustment Texture

The Texture Adjustment Texture provides a set of color and geometry adjustment settings that are applied to the child texture. The settings are much as the same as the adjustment section available for most textures.

Texture Adjustment Texture Settings

Input

Texture name

The name of the image file.

Clamping

Clamp

Turns component clamping on or off.

Scale to clamp range

Scales the component values between the minimum and maximum values.

Min

Sets the minimum value.

Max

Sets the maximum value.

Color adjustment

Invert

Transforms the image to its negative. For low dynamic range (LDR) images, this involves subtracting each component from 1.0. For HDR images, each component is replaced with its reciprocal.

Grayscale

Each color is replaced with a gray value based on the luminance.

Gamma

Each color transforms by a given gamma. The effect is increased or decreased contrast.

Multiplier

Each color value is multiplied by a this amount. The effect is to increase or decrease brightness.

Gain

A simple adjustment to increase and decrease contrast and brightness.

Saturation

Changes the image saturation where 1.0 is the original color saturation and 0.0 is fully gray.

Hue shift

Changes the hue value of each color by a given degree on the color wheel.

Geometry

Flip vertically

Flips the image vertically.

Flip horizontally

Flips the image horizontally (as in mirror).

Tile Texture

Tile textures are repeating patterns of color or texture or both.

Tile Texture Settings

Tile geometry

Specifies the tile pattern.

2D / 3D rectangular

2D triangular

2D hexagonal

2D octagonal

Joint width U/V/W

Specifies the width of the joint color in each u,v, w direction.

Phase shift U/V/W

The offset in tile space between each row or column of tiles (for each of the axes in u, v, and w). This is used to create brick-like patterns (where, for a simple stretcher bond, the u‑phase shift is 0.5).


Without phase shift (left), horizontal phase shift (center), vertical phase shift (right).

Turbulence Texture

The Turbulence texture creates a simplified partially coherent noise texture.

Similar effects are possible using the more complex but much more powerful Noise texture. Turbulence is a variation of Perlin noise Turbulence spectral synthesis.

See: Wikipedia: Perlin noise.

Turbulence Texture Settings

Roughness

A measure of the contrast between noise levels.

Maximum octaves

The levels of fractal detail in the noise algorithm.

Gain

A simple adjustment to increase and decrease contrast and brightness.

Waves Texture

The waves texture produces grayscale strips with a sine wave value curve in either a linear or radial pattern.

Waves Texture Settings

Type
Linear

Produces linear waves (parallel lines).

Radial

Produces radial waves (concentric circles)

Contrast In

The steepness of the sine wave on the negative u side of the texture (1.0 is linear).

Contrast Out

The steepness of the sine wave on the positive u side of the texture (1.0 is linear).

Spacing

The distance in texture units between the waves.

By value

Specifies the distance in simple texture units.

By texture

Specifies the distance by evaluating the luminance of another texture at that point.

Wood Texture

The Wood texture consists of concentric cylinders of alternating Base and Ring components. The Wood procedure defines how the Base and Ring components combine.

The method used to create wood materials depends on how close it will be viewed.

If the viewpoint is not close to the wood, a solid color can take the place of wood without sacrificing image quality. This allows faster rendering.

Wood Texture Settings

Grain thickness

The thickness of the wood grain. The thicker the grain, the more Color 2 affects the result and the less Color 1 does.

Radial noise

The amount of random variation in the grain. A value of zero makes the grain perfectly smooth. Higher values cause a more pronounced random variation in the grain.

Axial noise

Provides further random variation in the grain. This setting only has an effect when viewing the texture in 3‑D with WCS on and when Radial noise is greater than zero.

Blur 1

Controls the amount of blurring on the inner edge of the grain.

Blur 2

This controls the amount of blurring on the outer edge of the grain.

Save and share render content

Render content (materials, environments, and textures) are stored in models. They can also be saved to files and shared across models. The Libraries panel displays the default content folder. Content can be dragged and dropped between Rhino sessions or between a Rhino window and a disk folder.

To access hidden command-line options

Command-line options

ShowPanel

Displays the Textures panel.

Options

Displays command-line options.

Add
Delete
Rename
Change
Duplicate
LoadFromFile
SaveToFile

DownloadLibraryTextures

Toolbar Menu

Not on toolbars.

Not on menus.

The DownloadLibraryTextures command runs through the entire list of materials in the material library and downloads all of the required bitmap files from the Rhino server to the local computer. After that, any material can be used from the library without being online.

See also

Environments

Opens the Environments panel.

Materials

Open or close the Materials panel.

Render

Render the objects using the current renderer.

Snapshots

The Snapshots command saves and restores Named Views, Named Positions, Layer States, as well as rendering settings, object settings including locked/hidden state, display mode, material, position, light settings, curve piping, displacement, edge softening, shutlining, and thickness.

 

 

 

Rhinoceros 6 © 2010-2019 Robert McNeel & Associates. 05-Oct-2019