Accurate modeling

Normally, dragging the mouse moves the cursor on the construction plane in the active viewport. Simply move the cursor to another viewport to change the construction plane.

You can also restrict the cursor movement in a number of ways, including:

Distance constraint

Locks the next point will be placed at a specified distance from the last point.

To constrain to a distance

Use distance constraint to draw a line

  1. Start the Line command, and place the first line point.
  2. At the End of line prompt, type 4.
    The line endpoint moves around the last point 4 units away.
  3. Click to place the point, or, type an angle, and press Enter.

Angle constraint

Locks the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point.

Constrain to an angle

Use angle constraint to draw a line

  1. Start the Line command, and place the first line point.
  2. At the End of line… prompt, type <20.
    The line is restricted to 20-degree angle increments.
  3. Click to place the point, or, type a distance, and press Enter.

Distance and angle constraint used together

The distance and angle constraints can be combined.

To use both distance and angle

Use distance and angle to draw a line

  1. Start the Line command, and place the first line point.
  2. At the End of line… prompt, type @5<45 or r5<45.
    The line is drawn 5 units from the last point at the angle 45 degrees from the first point.

Direction lock (Tab key)

The Tab key locks the cursor's direction of travel.

To use direction lock

Draw a line using direction lock

  1. Start the Line command, and place the first line point.
    Use an object snap to locate a specific location on another object.
  2. Tap the Tab key.
    The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker, was when you tapped the Tab key.
    If grid snap is on and ortho is activated, the direction lock snaps to grid lines.

Tips

Circle lock (Tab key)

A second tap of the Tab key will set Rhino into a tracking mode on a circle where, instead of locking to a line defined by the last pick point and the 3‑D mouse location when the Tab key is tapped, Rhino tracks to a circle with the center at the last pick point and the radius defined by the Tab tap location.

To use circle lock

Elevator mode

Specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane.

Ctrl + left mouse click.

Draw a curve using elevator mode

  1. Start the Curve command and place the first point.
  2. At the Next point of curve... prompt, pick another location in the perspective viewport.
  3. At the Next point... prompt, hold Ctrl and pick a point in the perspective viewport.
  4. Drag the mouse in the perspective viewport.
    A tracking line displays, indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. Click to select the point. Notice the location of the marker in the other views.

Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode

  1. Select the objects to move.
  2. Hold Ctrl and click and drag the selection set.
    A tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker, indicating the new location of the selection set.
  3. Release the left mouse button to place the objects.

Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error

  1. After starting elevator mode, hold Ctrl and click the left mouse button again.
  2. Continue with picking locations.
    You can start elevator mode in another location.

Example with angle and elevator mode

  1. Start the Line command and place the first line point.
  2. At the End of line… prompt, move the mouse to the location where the line should end.
  3. Hold down Ctrl and click to activate the Elevator mode.
  4. Release Ctrl, type <30 and press Enter.
    A line is drawn at 30 degree angle to the construction plane, ending on the elevator line.

Other ways to use elevator mode

Multiple elevator

  1. Press Ctrl, and click to start elevator mode.
  2. Change viewports, release Ctrl and click again.
    A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane.

Canceling elevator

  1. Press Ctrl, and click to start elevator mode.
  2. Release Ctrl, press Ctrl again, and click.

Elevator from direction lock

Elevator mode can also be activated from direction lock, but only if the command allows 3‑D points.

Note

Point filters

Point filters extract individual x, y, and z coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point.

You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point.

After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values.

Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one.

The following filters are possible:

.x

.y

.z

.xy (.yx)

.xz (.zx)

.yz (.zy)

.wx

.wy

.wz

.wxy (.wyx)

.wxz (.wzx)

.wyz (.wzy)

Draw a point using filters

To place a point at the x coordinate of the right end of a line and the y coordinate of the left end of a line.

  1. Start the Point command.
  2. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x.
  3. At the X coordinate of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right end point of the line.
  4. This sets the x coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.
  5. At the next Location of point object prompt, type .y.
  6. At the Y coordinate of prompt with the End object snap activated, pick the left endpoint of the line.
    This sets the y coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.
  7. At the Location of point object prompt, pick to place the point.
    If you specified an x value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x value of the first point and the y, z value of the second point.

Entering numbers

Use numbers for entering distances, angles, and point coordinates.

No spaces are permitted in a number, angle, or x, y, z coordinate points.

Basic numbers

Whole numbers

123

Decimal numbers

123.456

0.456

.456

Scientific notation

-1.23456e10

1.23456E10

Fractions

5/16

1-3/4 (1.75)

Units

You can specify units when typing lengths and point coordinates. The numbers will automatically convert to the model's units. For example, if your model units are meters, and you type 27cm, Rhino automatically converts your number to 0.27. This also works for converting feet and inches or any other unit system.

Unit examples

1.235millimeters

-1.234cm

+16'5" (16 feet 5 inches)

1'2-3/4" (1 foot 2.75 inches)

Cartesian coordinates

When prompted for a point, you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways:

You can type x and y coordinates or x, y and z coordinates to place points. With the w prefix you can type world coordinates, with r prefix relative coordinates, and with wr prefix world relative coordinates.

Construction plane coordinates

When Rhino prompts you for a point, if you type x and y Cartesian coordinates, the point will lie on the construction plane of the current viewport.

Use 2-D construction plane coordinates

Use 3-D construction plane coordinates

Examples

x,y,z

3,4,5

2,-11 (2,-11,0) When you omit the z coordinate, it is automatically set to 0.

If you type only x and y coordinates, the point will lie on the construction plane of the active view.

Polar (radius<rotation angle)

17<45

Polar (radius<rotation angle,z)

17<45,8

Spherical (radius<rotation angle<z elevation angle)

5<30<45

Spherical (x,y<elevation angle)

5,6<15

Surveyor (distance<N/Sangle E/W)

11<N30d22'54.43"W

Use construction plane coordinates

Note

Use construction plane coordinates to draw a line

  1. Start the Line command and place the first line point at 0,0.
    This starts the line at the construction plane origin.
  2. At the End of line... prompt, type 12,6,10 and press Enter.
    The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12 units along the x-axis, 6 units along the y-axis, and 10 units along the z-axis of the current construction plane.

World coordinates

Rhino contains one world coordinate system. The world coordinate system cannot be changed. When Rhino prompts you for a point, you can type coordinates in the world coordinate system.

The arrow icon in the lower left corner of each viewport displays the direction of the world x, y, and z axes. The arrows move to show the orientation of the world axes when you rotate a view.

Use 2-D world coordinates

Use 3-D world coordinates

Note

Examples

Type w in front of the coordinates, to use the world coordinate system; otherwise the construction plane coordinates of the active view are used.

World x,y,x

w9,3,4

World polar

w78<32

Use world coordinates to draw a line

  1. Start the Line command and place the first line point at w0,0,0, and press Enter.
    This starts the line at the world coordinate origin.
  2. At the End of line... prompt, type w12,6,10 and press Enter.
    The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12,6,10 in the world coordinates.

Relative coordinates

Rhino remembers the last point used, so you can enter the next point relative to it. Relative coordinates are useful for entering a list of points where the relative locations instead of absolute locations of the points are known. Use relative coordinates to locate points according to their relationship to the previous active point.

Use relative coordinates

Use relative coordinates to draw a line

  1. Start the Line command.
  2. At the Start of line… prompt, click to place the first end of the line.
  3. At the End of line… prompt, type r2,3, and press Enter or Space.
    The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x direction and 3 units in the y direction from the last point.

Example

In commands like Line and Polyline, you can specify relative points.

Construction plane

@3,4 (Move 3 units in the x direction and 4 units in the y direction from the previous point.)

r3,4

R3,4

@5<30 (Relative points work with any point format.)

World

@w11<N30d22'54.43"W

Relative polar construction plane

r4<45

@4<45

Relative polar world

rw4<45

Command-line calculator

Any time you are entering a number, length, point coordinate, or angle, you can use a math formula.

In addition to addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, you can also use parenthesis and math functions.

Examples:

Command Line Math

See also

For an introduction to coordinate systems, see: http://www.mathopenref.com/coordintro.html.

SmartTrack

Turn on a system of temporary reference lines and points.

Object snaps

Constrain the marker to an exact location on an object such as the center of a circle or the midpoint of a line.

Ortho

Restrict cursor movement to an angle.

 

 

 

Rhinoceros 6 © 2010-2019 Robert McNeel & Associates. 21-Jun-2019